테트리스하우스

2022. 11. 14. 12:12회원작품 | Projects/House

Tetris House

 

사진작가 김용순, 최진보(모형사진)

 

하나이면서 셋
건축주의 첫 번째 요구사항은 210제곱미터의 대지에 건폐율 60%를 최대한 활용하여 2층짜리 건물을 짓되, 세 가구가 살 수 있는 건물을 설계해 달라는 것이었다. 은퇴하신 부모님과 미혼인 아들, 자녀가 둘 있는 딸 부부, 그리고 임대 세대까지 이렇게 세 가구를 위한 공간을 설계하는 것이 우리들의 숙제였다. 보통 은퇴하신 부모님을 중심으로 3대가 모여 사는 집일 경우 하나의 주거 공간 속에서 각자의 프라이버시를 지켜주며 가족들이 함께 살 공간들을 마련해 주는 것이 일반적인데, 율현동 주택 건축주의 경우 부모님과 딸 부부가 완전히 분리된 세대가 되기를 원하였고, 또한 완전히 분리된 별도의 임대 세대까지 있어서 제한된 건축면적에서 어떻게 하면 세 가구를 효율적으로 분배해 넣을 것인지가 가장 큰 고민이었다. 
세 가구로 공간이 완전히 분리되다 보니, 각 공간에서 살게 될 건축주의 의견도 서로 엇갈리게 되었다. 부모님은 임대세대를 직접 관리하면서 조금은 평범하고 편안한 단층형 주택에서의 삶을 원했고, 딸 부부는 기존 아파트에서의 삶과는 완전히 다른 2층짜리 주택을 원했다. 조율하기 힘든 이 두 가지 엇갈린 의견이 오히려 건물의 콘셉트를 정하게 되는 좋은 계기가 되었다. 한쪽의 생각을 선택하기보다는 두 가지 생각이 모두 반영될 수 있는 건물의 구성개념을 떠올리게 된 것이다.

테트리스형 트리플렉스
단순히 적층된 2층집에서는 두 가지 의견을 모두 수용하기가 힘들었다. 따라서 기본적인 건물의 구성은 2층짜리 건물을 세로로 양분해서 두 쪽 모두 2층을 갖게 되는 듀플렉스 하우스가 되었다. 그중 한쪽은 2층을 모두 갖게 되는 2층집으로 계획하고, 나머지 한쪽은 아래층을 분리하여 임대를 주는 형태로 설계가 진행되었다. 하지만 건물을 세로로 양분하게 되면 한 세대가 갖게 되는 수평 면적이 좁아진다는 것이 문제였다. 이를 보완하기 위해서 건물 내부의 계단공간을 최소화하고, 심리적 공간감을 극대화할 수 있는 방안들을 고민하였다.
딸 부부가 살게 되는 2층집 공간은 층이 나뉘면서 어쩔 수 없이 생겨나는 계단공간을 허비하지 않기 위해 스킵플로어를 적용하였다. 한 층의 공간을 절반정도로 나누어 각 층 바닥을 높이 1.5미터씩 스킵플로어로 올라가는 방식이다. 2살짜리 자녀들이 두 층을 오가면서 3미터 높이의 가파른 계단을 한 번에 오르내리는 부담감도 덜게 되고, 계단으로 인해 공간이 두 개 층으로 완전히 분리되기보다는 1.5미터 차이가 나는 각 층이 시각적으로 모두 연결되는 효과도 있다. 스킵플로어 방식으로 각 층 바닥이 나뉘게 되는 평면 가운데 부분에는 1층부터 2층까지 트여 있는 조그만 오프닝을 두어 천창을 통해 들어오는 햇빛을 1층까지 전달하기도 하고, 각 층 바닥에서의 시선들이 서로 열려있어 전체 건물이 하나의 공간으로 인지되는 효과도 생긴다.
임대세대와 부모님이 살게 되는 나머지 듀플렉스 공간은 일단 아래층과 위층이 별도의 출입구를 갖게 되면서 완전히 분리되게 된다. 각 층으로 나뉘게 되면서 불가피하게 계단공간이 발생하게 되고, 이로 인해 생활 면적이 더 줄게 되는 부분을 다른 방식으로 보완해야만 했다. 그래서 임대세대와 부모님세대의 공간은 협소한 면적을 심리적 공간감으로 극복하기 위해 높은 층고를 갖는 방식으로 접근하였다. 임대세대는 4미터의 층고로 계획하여 높은 거실과 작은 복층형 다락을 갖게 되었고, 부모님세대는 거실과 다락으로 올라가는 계단공간을 높게 터서 공간감을 최대한 확장하였다.

셋이면서 하나
셋으로 완전히 분리된 집이라는 개념은 한편으로는 일반적인 다세대 주택에서의 세대분리와 같아 보인다. 그러나 우리는 이러한 일반적인 접근방식을 조금은 탈피하기 위해서, 세대가 분리는 되었지만 한 가족이 서로 모여 하나의 건물에서 산다는 것을 강조하고 싶었다. 그래서 듀플렉스와 스킵플로어, 더블하이트(Double Height)라는 공간적인 기법으로 인해 다소 복잡하게 나뉘어진 내부공간과는 달리 건물의 외관은 완전히 하나의 건물로 인지될 수 있도록 하였다. 외관은 간결한 박스형태로 디자인하였고, 외부마감재로 사용된 아연도금강판과 STO 외단열마감은 일정간격으로 분할된 줄눈으로 정리하여, 수직•수평으로 복잡하게 나뉘어진 내부공간이 외부에서는 굳이 드러나지 않도록 처리하였다. 각 세대가 몇층의 몇호 집으로 자기 집을 인식하는 것과 달리 완전히 하나로 인지되는 간결하게 네모난 박스형태의 건물 자체를 자기 집으로 인식할 수 있는 부분이다. 그리고 1,2층 2개층을 사용하는 딸 부부 세대와 2층을 사용하는 부모님세대는 둘 다 옥상을 갖게 된다는 점에 착안하여, 두 집이 옥상공간을 서로 공유하면서 이 곳이 가족이 함께 모일 수 있는 공간이 될 수 있도록 하였다.

 

사진작가 김용순, 최진보(모형사진)

 

One Makes Three
First on the list of guidelines set by the client was to design a 2-story residential building that can accommodate 3 households - client and his wife and son, family of the client’s daughter with 2 children, and rental unit- that maximizes the 60% floor area ratio regulation on 210㎡ site. Ensuring privacy of members is always an important element when designing a residential home for a family that includes members from 3 generations, but still the main focus remains on spaces that serves the needs of the whole family. This project, however, posed an extra challenge as the client expressed his desire for the unit for his daughter’s family as well as the rental unit to be completely separated from the main unit. Limited size of the project site was another factor that made the job challenging.  Since the client wanted complete independence of the 3 units, different demands and needs of their occupants needed to be considered. While the client insisted on a conventional single-story house with easier monitoring of the rental unit, his daughter and husband expressed interest in a 2-story house that is a complete diversion of an apartment life they would be leaving behind. Debate over these two options could have been difficult, but it actually served as a catalyst that inspired the design concept that came to embrace elements of both sides without having to choose one over the other. 


Triplex house built like Tetris blocks  
It was sure that conventional designs typically associated with a 2-story residential house couldn’t satisfy the needs of both the client and his daughter.  Addressing the predicament started by applying a duplex design by split the house in half with each side featuring 2 floors. 1 duplex unit was left as an independent 2-story unit, but the other unit was severed horizontally to create separate units on each floor with the 1st floor unit available for rental. This plan to vertically dissect the house in half, of course, naturally brought on the problem of reduced horizontal area for all units. All efforts were made to ensure efficient use of the space such as keeping the space allotted for staircase at its minimum in addition to contemplating measures to psychologically enhance the sense of space.  The 1 intact duplex unit for the family of the client’s daughter featured skip-floor design for more effective space use. Instead of a conventional staircase that connects the 1st and 2nd floor, the 2 floors were further divided in half to feature 4 ‘floors’ connected by a set of shorter staircases that are 1.5m in height. Skip-floor design benefits the children, 2-years-old, as they don’t have to climb up and down a single 3-meter-long staircase. The entire space also looks more open and bigger in an absence of the staircase that completely dissects the two floors. Middle of the floor plan through the axle of the stairs was designed to be void to let the light in from the skylight on the roof. It also unifies the floors into one big space by visually enhancing the sense of openness. The other duplex for the client’s family and rental unit was split up horizontally with each unit having private entrances. Accordingly, additional staircase space had to be allocated for the access to the 2nd floor, and loss of living space was compensated by other creative use of space.  While a duplex house offers comfortable living environment with a sense of openness, dividing it in half meant that the sense of space also had to be downsized. Instead of slicing the 1st and 2nd floor in a straight line, both units were designed to feature taller ceiling like a loft. The rental unit is 4 meters in height in the living room where a small attic is located. Unit for the client’s family maximized the sense of space by opening up the staircase that connects the living room to the attic.  

Three Makes One
In some sense, a house that is made up of 3 individual units may be similar to the multiplex apartment building common in Korea. Triplex House attempts to break the mold by emphasizing that households are independent but retain a sense of family as they share their life in the same building. In order to offset a complex combination of designs – duplex, skip-floor, and double height – that was applied for the interior, the box-shaped exterior was kept with minimal design intervention to appeal as an entirely single unit of building. Exterior was finished with galvanized iron sheets and sto external wall insulation system featuring grout work like a screen that conceals complex layout of the interior from the outside. Rather than members of different households identifying themselves only with their respective unit, homogenous exterior makes it easier to embrace the whole building as their ‘home’. Since both the duplex unit for the daughter’s family and 2nd-floor unit for the client’s family have access to the roof-top space, the space is designed to be connected and shared by both families.

 

사진작가 김용순, 최진보(모형사진)
사진작가 김용순, 최진보(모형사진)
사진작가 김용순, 최진보(모형사진)
사진작가 김용순, 최진보(모형사진)
디테일
단면도
1층 평면도
2층 평면도


테트리스하우스
설계자 | 강제용 _ 이데아키텍츠 건축사사무소 
감리자 | 강제용 _ 이데아키텍츠 건축사사무소
설계팀 | 전종우
대지위치 | 서울특별시 강남구 율현동
주요용도 | 다가구주택
대지면적 | 210.53㎡
건축면적 | 126.00㎡
연면적 | 341.52㎡
건폐율 | 24.75%
용적률 | 31.25%
규모 | B1F - 4F
구조 | 철근콘크리트구조
외부마감재 | 아연도금강판, Sto
내부마감재 | 페인트, 벽지, 원목마루, 타일
설계기간 | 2015. 10 – 2016. 03
공사기간 | 2016. 05 – 2016. 10
사진 | 김용순, 최진보(모형사진)
구조분야 : (주)이든구조컨설턴트
기계설비분야 : 아이에코 ENG.
전기분야 : 아이에코 ENG.
소방분야 : 아이에코 ENG.
Tetris House
Architect | Jeyong Kang _ IDEEAA
Supervisor | Jeyong Kang _ IDEEAA 
Project team | Jongwoo Jun
Location | Yulhyeon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, Korea
Program | Multi family house
Site area | 210.53㎡
Building area | 126.00㎡
Gross floor area | 341.52㎡
Building to land ratio | 24.75%
Floor area ratio | 31.25%
Building scope | B1F - 4F
Structure | RC
Exterior finishing | Galvanized Steel, Sto
Interior finishing | Paint, Wallpaper, Wood flooring, Tile
Design period | Oct. 2015 – Mar. 2016
Construction period | May 2016 – Oct. 2016
Photograph | Yongsun Kim / JInbo Choi(model)
Structural engineer | Eden Structural Enginerring Group
Mechanical engineer | Ieco ENG.
Electrical engineer | Ieco ENG.
Fire engineer | Ieco ENG.

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